As a class teacher marking the daily register i have come to recognise mwandi family names lozi names, the siluyana ones, fall into two main categories, nouns and verbal constructions notulu and amwalana, from the previous article, are two good examples. Class 6 (the liquid masses class) contains the plurals of class 5 nouns as well as the plurals of many class 1 nouns, class 9 nouns (quantitive plurals), and all class 14 nouns which may assume plurals it also contains the names of some liquids which only appear in the plural. Polyplural classes in a selection of bantu languages jouni maho remarks on a few “polyplural” classes in bantu 163 table 1 summarizes the situation in a selection of the studied languages4 as seen in the table, there is a hint of an implicational hierarchy stating something along the lines: “if any of the classes 2, 4 and 8 function. Silozi courses can be offered on three levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced, or a speaking class in portuguese) target group: private individuals, students, the business community and everyone who wishes to learn a language or to improve his/her language skills.
Newly available outside africa, this is a comprehensive survey of loanwords that have been incorporated into three zambian languages, commonly known as lozi, nyanja and tonga the book gives a list of loanwords from african and european languages into zambia's major languages the author additionally introduces the language and linguistic environment in zambia. The peace corps - beginners tutorial in sesotho material can be used both as a self-guided course or with the assistance of a the noun classes: quick reference charts (setswana), the northern sotho languages (sesotho sa leboa), kgalagari (shekgalagari) and lozi (silozi) sesotho is, and has always been, the name of the language in the. Books: textbooks: [among others] more somali nouns somali lessons 1 beginning somali a grammar of konso egyptian hieroglyphs demotic dictionary remenkimi silozi dictionary bantu classification kituba course kikongo resources kituba course makonde grammar.
In sesotho it is a fortition process and usually occurs in the formation of class 9 and 10 nouns, in the use of the objectival concord of the first person singular, in the use of the adjectival and enumerative concords of some noun classes, and in the forming of reflexive verbs (with the reflexive prefix. A slight struggle in terms of getting to know others throughout my service was communication in general silozi, other home languages like mbalangwe, subiya, etc were hard to pick up because everyone wanted to practice their english and learn american english from me. The most prominent grammatical characteristic of bantu languages is the extensive use of affixes (see sotho grammar and ganda noun classes for detailed discussions of these affixes) an example from chichewa: the word school.
A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings in linguistics, the term noun class refers to a system of categorizing nouns. Morphology is the branch of linguistics (and one of the major components of grammar) that studies word structures, especially in terms of morphemes, which are the smallest units of languagethey can be base words or components that form words, such as affixes the adjective form is morphological morphology over time. The sotho language, also known as sesotho, southern sotho, or southern sesotho, is a bantu language spoken primarily in south africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in lesotho, where it is the national language.
Class 10 contains the plurals of class 9 nouns as well as the plurals of some class 5 nouns (from proto-bantu class 11) the prefix is formed by adding di- to the full class 9 noun or adding di[n]- to the class 5 noun stem. When forming class 1 or 3 nouns from noun stems beginning with /b/ the middle /ʊ/ is removed and the /b/ is contracted into the /m/, resulting in mm this actively occurs with nouns derived from verbs commencing with b and has historically occurred with many other nouns. Each noun belongs to a class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like grammatical gender in european languages the class is indicated by a prefix that is part of the noun, as well as agreement markers on verb and qualificative roots connected with the noun. Introduction to silozi grammar m w mwisiya mankoya manner masubiya maswe mawawa monde mood mubita mufalo muleta muluti mumbuna munna munzi musali mushimani mutu mwana ndate negative nouns of classes objectival person singular pilu popular suffix possessive concord qualificative pronouns senanga short or small shwile sika silozi nouns. Sotho phonology edit classic editor history in sesotho it is a fortition process and usually occurs in the formation of class 9 and 10 nouns, ↑ a further collapse occurred in silozi — which has lost the generally unusual distinction between plain and aspirated consonants.
Some restrictions on sesotho null noun class prefixes malillo machobane, francina moloi sesotho noun classes are generally heterogeneous in content (doke & mofokeng, 1957) it is less common in other related languages such as silozi, which belongs to the. The noun classes 1-10, 14 and 15 of silozi are shared with sesotho but the use has been modified due to contact with siluyana the diminutive classes 12-13 and locative classes 16-18 which have been lost in sesotho were reinvented in silozi through borrowing from setswana and siluyana. Three different noun classes, and that s imilarly, the verb show three different agreeing forms of subject markers in contrast, lozi has, like otji herero, distinct nominal noun.
A semantic study on yami ontology in traditional songs yin-sheng tai d victoria rau meng-chien yang providence university, providence university, providence university. A common characteristic of bantu languages is that they use words such as muntu or mutu for human being or in simplistic terms person, and the plural prefix for human nouns starting with mu-(class 1) in most languages is ba-(class 2), thus giving bantu for people. Bantu geographic distribution: subsaharan africa, mostly southern hemisphere linguistic classification: niger–congo atlantic–congo benue–congo bantoid.
This gives us a crew on semantic principles behind the classification of silozi noun classes silozi comprises of 19 noun classes like all other bantu languages, it uses a system set of noun classes and each noun belongs to one of the classes. 22 grammar corner: noun classes 27 23 other dialects 30 3 shopping 32 31 dialogue 33 32 grammar corner: demonstratives 35 33 other dialects 36 4 counting 39 41 numerical counting 39 42 shapes 40 43 measurements 41 4 44 grammar corner: numerals 42 45 other dialects 43. Noun-class prefixes are obligatory in most bantu languages however, the sotho languages (sesotho, setswana, sepedi) permit a subset of prefixes to be realized as null at the intersection of ‘unmarked’ phonological, syntactic, and discourse conditions.